This publication compiles statistics from data sources across the Criminal Justice System (CJS), to provide a combined perspective on the typical experiences of different ethnic groups. No causative links can be drawn from these summary statistics. For the majority of the report, no controls have been applied for other characteristics of ethnic groups (such as average income, geography, offence mix or offender history), so it is not possible to determine what proportion of differences identified in this report are directly attributable to ethnicity. Differences observed may indicate areas worth further investigation but should not be taken as evidence of bias or as direct effects of ethnicity.
In general, ethnic minorities (excluding white minorities) appear to be over-represented at many stages throughout the CJS compared with the white ethnic group. This is especially apparent when comparing to the ethnic breakdown of the population of England and Wales. The greatest disparity appears at the point of stop and search, custodial remands and prison population. Among ethnic minorities (excluding white minorities), black individuals were often the most over-represented. At various points across the CJS, the disparity holds for children from ethnic minorities (excluding white minorities). Differences in outcomes between ethnic groups over time present a mixed picture, with disparity decreasing in some areas and widening in others.