Please select which cookies to accept

Necessary cookies are required for the site to function and cannot be deselected. You can find details of these on our Cookies page

Analytics cookies enable us to analyse our site usage. Marketing cookies allow us to measure the effectiveness of our marketing efforts.

Necessary Cookies
Analytics Cookies
Marketing Cookies
Online Catalogue

Official publications and international agency titles supplied by Dandy Booksellers call us now 020 7624 2993


Households Below Average Income Households Below Average Income is in stock now

Households Below Average Income

An analysis of the income distribution FYE 1995 - FYE 2023. Including CD-ROM of data.

The Households Below Average Income (HBAI) report presents information on UK living standards based on household income measures for financial year ending (FYE) 2023. Estimates are provided for average incomes, income inequality, and for the number and percentage of people living in low-income households. The statistics are the UK’s primary source of poverty estimates and, with a larger sample size, are also the main source on household incomes.

The HBAI statistics are commonly referred to as ‘poverty statistics’ which show the number or percentage of people living in poverty. This publication uses terms such as ‘income statistics’ and ‘people living in low-income households’ to describe more precisely what the data reflects. Although low income is a significant aspect of poverty, there are other aspects of poverty too. This publication also includes measures of ‘material deprivation’, which provide an indication of peoples’ ability to access or afford a range of everyday goods and services. Supporting statistics are also provided on household food security levels and prevalence of food bank usage for all individuals in the UK, including those in low-income households.

During the survey years spanning the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, FRS interviewing was conducted by telephone rather than using the established face-to-face method. Fieldwork operations during FYE 2023 gradually returned to the arrangements in place prior to the pandemic.

In Great Britain, survey fieldwork operations used face-to-face interviewing as the preferred method of data collection for the duration of the year. Telephone interviewing was retained as an alternative based on household preference and interviewer availability. In Northern Ireland, a return to prioritising face-to-face interviewing was rolled out fully by interviewers from July 2022. Across the UK, 72% of FRS households were interviewed face-to-face during FYE 2023. 
Department for Work and Pensions
Published by
Dandy Booksellers Ltd
Publication Date
3 April 2024
133 pages plus CD-ROM
A4 (210 x 297 mm)
Approx Weight
0.42 kg
HS Code